What is Multiple Sclerosis and its Causes?


When the hardening of body tissue takes place which is mostly due to the increase in the interstitial tissue or overgrowth of fibrous tissue, then the condition is characterized by sclerosis. It is a chronic disease which damages the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord and affects the function of the central nervous system. It also affects the optic nerve and has an impact on the eyes too. It happens repeatedly, and so the name is multiple sclerosis. People affected by multiple sclerosis are over 2.3 million around the world and in India; there are over 2 lakh people who fall prey to this autoimmune disease. Most of the People in India are not aware of this condition as this disease is quite uncommon in the country. It affects the people in the age group between 10- 16, but it can also affect people up to the age of 60. Women at are at high risk when compare with men.

What Happens?

When the nerve cells are affected it results in the imbalance of body function and unclear vision.  Multiple Sclerosis is a disease in which the immune cells affect the myelin sheath which helps in transmitting impulse and stimuli from the brain to the body and vice versa. As the condition progresses, Multiple Sclerosis is dived into 4 types.

  • Relapsing-remitting Sclerosis
  • Secondary – Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
  • Primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis and
  • Progressive- Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Why Does it Happen?

It does not have an exact cause, but it is an autoimmune disease. However, there are many theories for the cause of Multiple Sclerosis. Genetic factors are not the cause, but people who are one-degree relatives are at high risk. Consuming too much salt is said to be the cause of Multiple Sclerosis, but it is not proved. It is also said that vitamin deficiency can be the cause for Multiple Sclerosis. Youngsters at the age of 15 who move to a new locality are at high risk of Multiple Sclerosis. Other factors like drinking and smoking are not the cause of Multiple Sclerosis.

People affected with Sclerosis often collapse due to the imbalance in the body function. It is quite painful to see people whose immune cells cause their vision and central nervous a great imbalance. Scientists are still researching to find the exact cause of Multiple Sclerosis. It is said that the people who live in Northern Latitudes were identified to have the maximum risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis. But this begun to change and Multiple Sclerosis is also seen in temperate regions. This condition can improve in time to time and at the same time; it can also worsen the severity of the disease. It is unfortunate that there is no cure for Sclerosis. Treatment can slow down the attack, reduce the severity and sometimes the attacks are so mild that is no need for treatment. Aggressive medication can reduce the relapse time and slower the time of the attack. Wrong therapy will lead to other health problems. So, the right therapy should be taken into consideration which reduces the risk of causing other disorders.